A study published on January 4, 2022, describes a new pathway and molecule that will help reduce blood glucose levels in patients with Diabetes. There are many forms of Diabetes, but the most commonly known forms are Type I Diabetes and Type II Diabetes. Type I Diabetes is usually a genetic disorder in which the pancreas does not produce any insulin or an extremely low amount of insulin. Type II Diabetes is also known as onset Diabetes because of how it appears. Type II Diabetes is usually a result of a poor diet for a long period in which high glucose levels are common in your circulatory system.
Due, to the main problem of Diabetes being the lack of insulin being produced by the body, the obvious treatment is to inject insulin to increase these levels. Insulin is responsible for decreasing blood sugar levels when the concentration of glucose reaches a certain point. It does this by decreasing a process known as lipolysis (the breakdown of fat) and the activation of GLUT4 receptors. GLUT 4 receptors are protein complexes on the surface of cells in our body. When activated by insulin they remove glucose from the bloodstream and use the glucose for energy or storage.
So, what is this newly discovered way of regulating this pathway? A molecule known as FGF1 has been studied by a group of scientists and determined that it functions very similarly to insulin. It reduces lipolysis and reduces blood sugar levels in the body. The difference is how FGF1 does it. FGF1 uses a molecular pathway known as PDE4 to do this while insulin uses PDE3B. This discovered pathway is a huge step in the right direction to provide an alternative treatment for patients with Diabetes. Insulin is an extremely expensive product and can be hard to store at times. Discovering a new pathway and possibly a new product to use can be one of the most influential things that are discovered in the year 2022.
Reference: “FGF1 and insulin control lipolysis by convergent pathways” by Gencer Sancar, Sihao Liu, Emanuel Gasser, Jacqueline G. Alvarez, Christopher Moutos, Kyeongkyu Kim, Tim van Zutphen, Yuhao Wang, Timothy F. Huddy, Brittany Ross, Yang Dai, David Zepeda, Brett Collins, Emma Tilley, Matthew J. Kolar, Ruth T. Yu, Annette R. Atkins, Theo H. van Dijk, Alan Saghatelian, Johan W. Jonker, Michael Downes and Ronald M. Evans, 4 January 2022, Cell Metabolism.